Important CNC Parts for a CNC Machine

March 21, 2021

Electrical and Mechanical Parts to Build a CNC Machine

CNC machines are exorbitantly expensive, and hobbyist CNC machinists cannot afford to buy them. Therefore, many people now look for either Zhong Bang or Toshiba cnc parts to build a CNC machine by themselves. Which is not as difficult as it sounds. If you have metalworking experience and can tackle DIY jobs easily, you can build a CNC machine yourself.

There are many guides out there that can help you with the steps of DIYing a CNC machine. But a consolidated list of all the important parts to build a CNC machine is hard to find. Therefore, in this article, we have compiled all the important elements of a CNC machine and are presenting them with you with a brief explanation.

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Working of a CNC Machine

Before we can get to the list of the crucial parts Zhong Bang or Toshiba cnc parts for a CNC machine, we must understand the process of CNC machining for a better understanding of the functionality of each part.

The CNC machining process is a subtractive parts manufacturing process. It is called a subtractive process because it removes the material from the workpiece to create the required shape and design out of it.

A typical CNC machine comprises a table and a cutting device, which is an oversimplification of its mechanism, but we will get to the details later. The workpiece sits on the table while the cutting tool cuts engrave and removes the extra material from the workpiece.

But how does the cutting tool know where to cut and where not to cut? That’s where the ‘CNC’ comes in. Each operational element of the CNC machine is controlled by a controller. Hence the name computer numerically controlled machines.

A drawing of the required part design is made through CAD software and fed into the computer. The computer converts the CAD file into a CAM file. The CAM file contains the g-code or the language that the CNC controller can understand. The instructions of the movement, position, and speed of the cutting tool are stored in the g-code.

The CNC controller reads the g-code, extracts the important information out of it, and guides the machine to perform the cutting job accordingly.

Important Parts of a CNC Machine

The process that we described above is a rough outline of the CNC machining operation. There are several parts of the CNC machine that each play a unique yet important role in each stage of the CNC machining operation, right from the point where the CAD file goes into the computer, up until the operator removes the finished part from the table.

These parts work in sync to create a precise, sharp, and finely finished part and win the CNC machine the reputation it enjoys today.

Electrical Parts of a CNC Machine

Since a CNC machine is a feat of engineering that automizes the mechanical machining process, it has several electronic parts that make it independent of human intervention. Below are some of the most common electrical parts that make the CNC machines what they are today:


What brain is to a human, a microprocessor is to a CNC machine. A microprocessor controls the entire CNC system and tells it what to do.

Also known as a central processing unit, a microprocessor comprises memory modules that receive and store data from another primary computer. It decodes this data in the form of electrical signals that communicate with the controllers and drive the mechanical components of the machine.

Machine Control Panel

The control panel finds its place on the external side of the CNC machine. Even though computers control the majority of the modern CNC machines, the control panel still finds some use.

The control panel acts as an interface between humans and the CNC system at the backend of the machine. It holds the reset and stops buttons to reset the position of the mechanical components and to stop the function of the machine. It may also manipulate the axial movements, feed speed, and orientation of the cutting tool.

Breakout Board

Breakout board is another important component of the CNC machine. By sending signals from the computer to the machine it acts as a communication bridge between the two.

More importantly, the breakout board isolates the microprocessors and chips of the computer from the high-voltage signals coming from the machine and protects them from burning out.

Display Unit

The display unit is an interface between the human controller and the CNC system of the machine. It is integrated with the control panel and displays the important operational and positional information.

Power Supply Unit

A power supply unit converts high voltage AC from the mains to the low-voltage DC to power the CNC machine. When looking for parts to build a CNC machine, you need to pay special attention to getting the right PSU. Because if the PSU voltage is too low, it won’t power the CNC machine. And if it is too high, it will fry the electronic components of the machine.


Motors drive all the movable components of the CNC machine. Two types of motors find use in CNC machines. That includes servomotors and stepper motors.

Whether a CNC machine uses servomotors or stepper motors, they will be controlled by a set of motor controllers. These controllers gather the input, measure the output, and adjust the movement, position, and speed of the spindle and other moveable parts (if any.)

Mechanical Parts of a CNC Machine

Mechanical parts of a CNC machine are what complete the purpose of the machine. While the CNC system controls the precise movements, the mechanical parts do the actual work. Following are some of the most important mechanical parts to build a CNC machine:


The frame of a CNC machine ranks as one of the most important parts to build a CNC machine. It supports the CNC table and acts as an anchor for all the parts of the CNC machine.

The basic requirement for a CNC frame is to be stable and rigid enough to withstand the cutting forces. And to damp the vibrations generated during the cutting process to not let them ruin the part’s surface finish.


The guideways of the CNC machine ensure that the cutting tools move along a rigid and well-defined part, giving the CNC machine the precision and repeatability, it boasts. Moreover, the guideways are also vital for ensuring the surface finish of the workpiece because they absorb the vibrations that the cutting forces generate.

There are two most common types of guideways used in a CNC machine. One of them is the precision rods that are affordable but bend easily. The other type of guideways are rails that are expensive but perform better than precision rods.


All of the components that we have mentioned so far are important, but the spindle is easily one of the most important parts to build a CNC machine. The spindles of a CNC machine are responsible for holding the cutting tool and rotates with the help of motors.

Depending on the number of axes on a machine, a CNC machine may have more than one spindle.

Work Holding Device

You can’t just keep a workpiece on the CNC table, cut it, and expect to get the right results. The immense magnitude of forces involved in CNC machining operations necessitates that the workpiece must be held firmly in place for optimum CNC operation.

A work holding device finds use in the CNC machine to hold the workpiece firmly while the cutting tool does its job on it.

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Getting your hands on the right Zhong Bang or Toshiba cnc parts for a CNC machine is imperative to ensure that your CNC machine operates, and yields result just like you expect them to.

The performance of the CNC machine parts like its frame, spindles, and processor reflect in the finishing of the CNC part. Therefore, optimum CNC machine parts lead to finely-finished CNC products.

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