Which is the perfect Gearbox for CNC Turning Parts? (CNC Machine Components)

December 15, 2020

CNC machine gearbox: which gearbox is the best for the machine?

A gearbox is a mechanism capable of converting the torque received from the engine to other components in the mechanism. In most mechanical systems, including cnc turning parts, it changes the direction of force, as well as torque and pressure. Thus, it allows the engine to run more and experience less stress.

The listed functions are performed due to the reducer’s ability to perform step crushing. In machine tools that use a stepper motor system, there is a pole system.

Each engine has a coefficient. For example, 1.8 degrees. This value is divided by 360 degrees, which represent a circle. If you divide the factor 1.8 by 360 degrees, you get 200 poles. Furthermore, this determines the minimum step value. Moreover, this value will then have a meaningful display in the work with the machine. For example, we need to cut a piece that is 100 mm long.
CNC Turning Parts

At how many engine revolutions will cnc turning parts completes?

Most often, the revolutions are either not enough, or they are getting more. Of the two options, the system will choose the minimum and it turns out that the machine will not finish the required value. The gearbox, then, will allow the step to break up, so that the machine operator can perform the required task.

The most important parameter of each cnc turning parts is the reduction ratio. Moreover, it can be 1.8, depending on the type of transmission used.

Belt reducers usually have a belt with a different number of teeth. The reduction factor for such devices is 1.5, while for the planetary 1.7. The value of the ratio of different types of gearboxes is not a competitive advantage, since each gear has its own advantages and disadvantages.


At modern enterprises, the most popular are two completely different types of gearboxes – planetary and belt. The first of them, planetary, is more expensive, has small dimensions and demonstrates the highest productivity among similar mechanisms. Belt, in turn, is quite simple in its design, is cheap and is just as cheap to repair.


Generally, the planetary gearbox increases torque and transmits power well. In such a mechanism, the center gear transfers rotation to other gears that can rotate the outer ring, which then transfers motion to the connected assembly. Alternatively, in a mirrored design, the outer ring transmits motion to a group of rings, which then give torque to the central gear.

Benefits of a planetary cnc turning parts

  • return of large gear ratios,
  • compactness and low weight,
  • high efficiency,
  • the ability to cope with heavy loads,
  • reliability in work.


In turn, a belt gearbox is a mechanism capable of transferring rotation between shafts that locates parallel on one axis. The standard design of such cnc turning parts includes: a driving and driven shaft and a flexible connection (toothed belt). Similarly, the belt must stretch around a specific part of the pulley to form a wrap angle.

The value of this girth affects the grip quality. Great value affects better grip. Reduction in such devices is calculated in accordance with the diameters of the shafts, and the rotary motion can be converted into translational.

The classification of belt reducers is influenced by differences in the cross section of the belt, the number of pulleys, the location of all parts of the mechanism, as well as the presence of additional rollers.

The advantages of a cnc machine belt gear

  • low cost,
  • Ease of repair.
  • Resistance to loads.
  • Easy restart.
  • a broken belt does not harm the engine

Disadvantages of a belt gear

  • the pulleys can be large, which makes it difficult to use the cnc turning parts machine,
  • the inability of the shaft to cope with the increased load,
  • reduction of transmitted motion from minor belt slippage,
  • belt wear, as a result of which it must be changed periodically
  • since such a gearbox does not have a housing and all its parts are open, there is a high risk of contamination.


If you have to work on a machine that needs to do precise work at an intense pace, a planetary gearbox is better suited for this task. It removes vibration well, is able to crush the step qualitatively and practically reduces the load from the engine.

The belt reducer is not intended for precise, almost jewelry reduction. Therefore it is common in industries where detailed work on all parameters of the torque and the engine that creates it is not required.

CNC Turning Parts manufacturers


Spur gearbox

It is used in mechanisms with increased loads, where it is necessary to maintain high efficiency rates in the transmitted mechanical force. All the energy of the engine is transferred to the unit that needs to be set in motion. Demonstrates at the same time low losses.

It can be downward and upward. A distinctive feature of the cnc turning parts design – it includes one or several series-connected mechanical transmissions, consisting of gears and cogwheels placed on shafts. The main disadvantage is its large size.

Bevel gearbox

It is developed on the basis of spur gearboxes and is used in mechanisms that need to transmit rotation through cross shafts.

The design of cnc Worm gear

The design of the worm gearbox includes a gearwheel and a worm shaft. Such a gearbox is capable of transmitting forces from the driving mechanism to the shafts, which intersect in the same plane. The strengths of such a device are high-quality gear ratio, compact size and self-brake system.

Disadvantages – quick wear of the wheel teeth, low power and average efficiency. From constant work in an oil bath, a gear wheel, which is most often made of bronze, wears out quickly, a backlash appears and such a gearbox will require replacement or repair.

Another advantage is that there is no reverse motion. If the worm rotates the shaft, then there will be no reverse movement, so there is no need to install braking systems or additional couplings.

Hypoid reducer

In such gearboxes, the hypoid axis of the drive gear is displaced relative to the driven gear, due to which the overlap ratio increases. By design, such a gearbox is similar to a worm gear. The wheel has serrated spiral teeth. The advantage of this mechanism is the number of teeth simultaneously engaging.


Before choosing a gearbox for cnc turning parts, you need to understand what work parameters you expect from the transfer. The calculation of the loads that the gearbox will face will be an important factor in the analysis of the overload factor allowed for the mechanism.

The conditions in which the machine will operate (humidity, temperature) and the availability of free space in the working area are also of great importance. The more information the customer provides to the service, the more accurately it will be possible to determine the ideal reduction device for the machine.