Elements and Parts to Build a CNC Machine

March 09, 2021

CNC machines are around for many decades. The very first CNC machine came in the 1950s that brought a whole new way of manufacturing things. These machines also helped builders and engineers to create different products. Do you want to build a CNC machine for your small business goals? These machines consist of different parts and components and you can build them on your own for your small business set up. Today, we will talk about the different parts to build a CNC machine. It will help you know the process.

What Are The Different Parts To Build a CNC Machine?

There is a broad range of parts and components that makes a CNC machine. The CNC machining process involves different machines, software applications, and machine tools for producing a desired design or shape. Knowing these parts and components is important for machine operators and those who want to build a new machine.

Here are the different components and parts to build a CNC machine:

parts to build a CNC machine

1. Control Panel

It is the most important part of any CNC machine. It is like the machine’s brain that runs to create different products according to different designs. A controller or machinist enters the G-code with the keyboard. G code is the required dimensions of the product. After entering the G code, the keyboard guides axis motors for moving the components, like cutters.

2. Table

A table is one of the essential parts to build a CNC machine. The role of the table is to ensure a stationary position of the workpiece by holding it in position. It holds the workpiece during the entire milling process. A workpiece fits the plastic, wooden, or metal table with the help f metal clamps and T-slots.

3.  Column

The column operates alongside the axis. It provides support to the CNC milling part. Therefore, the column of the machine needs to be highly accurate and in place. Otherwise, the product you are going to manufacture will not be as you desire.

4. Cutting Tool

One of the necessary parts to build a CNC machine is a cutting tool. This part is linked to the machine column. The cutting tool gives the product a specific shape by moving alongside the axis. You can call it the backbone of the CNC machine without which the machine cannot be completed.

5. Frame

The name of this part gives you a clear idea about what it does. Like any other product or machine, the frame of a CNC machine is a sturdy frame that offers the machine solid support. The frame ensures extreme firmness to tolerate cutting forces.

6. Axes

The axes part plays a very significant role in a CNC machine. This part allows the workpiece or cutting tool to move around for obtaining supreme precision.

7. Spindle

The spindle is a vital part of a CNC machine that is made of a rotating assembly. It holds the motor and cutting tool that operates the whole workpiece.

8. Coolant Supply Tube

When the machine is working continuously, the metal workpiece keeps heating up. The role of a coolant supply tube is to cool down the metal workpiece. It also lubricates the machine cutting tool to ensure a smooth movement.

The above listed are the parts to build a CNC machine for creating different products. They all work together to produce a product with a specific shape and design according to your desires.

Application Areas

The CNC machined components and parts are used in different industries for different applications. Here are different application areas where these parts are used:

  • Satellite systems
  • Shaft assemblies
  • Semiconductor support
  • Electronic industry
  • Ball joints
  • Valve bodies
  • Housing hubs
  • Thermal control
  • Fasteners
  • Suspension arms
  • Medical devices
  • Tensioners
  • Output shafts

Apart from the above-listed application areas, these parts are also used in coinage die making, ratchet gears, box cases, and module blocks.

CNC Machining Benefits

CNC machining has different advantages for which it has become a popular machining choice in the manufacturing industry. Here are the top advantages that come with CNC machining:

1. Precision

Precision is the most significant advantage that comes with CNC machining. Different parts to build a CNC machine works together to accomplish perfection. This method practically eliminates possible human errors and completes the task with accuracy inside 1/1000th.

2. Endurance

CNC machines are known for reliable endurance. These machines work almost without any break, 24 hours a day every day. Therefore, these machines need to tolerate this workload well enough to work in the long run. Fortunately, they are durable and are only stopped for required repair and maintenance.

3. High Production & Scalability

After entering the design specification and parameters into the CNC machine, the machine executes large quantities consistently. The machine also has great flexible scalability, which is another great benefit that comes with CNC machining.

4. Enhance Capability

When a CNC machine is used in a tandem using design software, the machine produces output that no other manual machine can replicate. Engineers who are not able to work with traditional machines can use CNC machining easily because of its advanced software. You can use these machines to create any texture, size, or shape you need.

5. Less Manpower

The production execution becomes simple and fast with CNC machining as you don’t need a lot of personnel for execution. Various parts to build a CNC machine are good enough to run by an operator for the operation. On contrary, a manual machine requires a minimum of one skilled laborer and a supervisor. You can save manpower by switching to CNC machines. This means that you will benefit from the reduced labor costs.

6. Uniform Product

The output of a CNC machine matches exactly. If it is a manual machine, the output would vary slightly even if the engineers are highly experienced and talented. With the assistance of a CNC machine, every part created perfectly matches the exact specifications of the prototype.

7. Improved Safety

Apart from the consistent pieces and expedient production, these machines are also safe to work with. The operator of a CNC machine works away from the harsh tools, creating a safe working environment. On the other hand, there is direct contact between the operator and traditional manual drills, punches, lathes, and other such tools.

8. Reduced Costs

Did you know that a CNC machine reduces costs? By using these machines, you will be enjoying high speed, precision, specialization, and fewer labor hours. This all ensures reduced overall costs as compared to the manual machines. You can use the money that you save on some other activities, like marketing your product for a competitive advantage.

9. Design Retention

Once you load a design into the software of the CNC machine, it will create an exact prototype. The design you entered will remain the same in the software. It means that you do not need to enter the same design again and again into the software. The software will retrieve that design the next time you need to create the same object again.

CNC machined parts are used in various industrial applications including automotive, metal fabrication, agriculture, electronics, and manufacturing, etc.

parts to build a CNC machine
metalworking machining cutting process of blank detail by milling cutter with hardmetal carbide insert at modern cnc machine. Toned


We have learned about the parts to build a CNC machine, the application areas, and the benefits of CNC machining parts. These machines have become a very important tool for manufacturing parts in different shapes and designs without any error. They are known for precision, high production, reliability, and uniform production.

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