What are latest CNC part programming codes for beginners in 2021?

August 15, 2021

CNC programming is an essential part of the design and manufacturing process. The time of testing, debugging and launching a part into production depends on how clean the CNC part programming codes will be. Machine tools with numerical software equipment differ in purpose and programming methods. The same part is easy to process on different machines.

CNC part programming codes

Different technological operations

Depending on the geometry of the model, the presence or absence of holes, the part can go through several sequential technological operations on different CNC machines:

  • lathe - for shaping, cutting, grooving, undercutting;
  • milling - for cutting planes, creating flats, grooves;
  • drilling - for creating technological holes and chiseling;
  • grinding - for the purpose of final or rough processing of parts, removal of welded seams;
  • Multipurpose, which performs all the operations of previous machines.

As a rule, the enterprise has various types of CNC machines that allow performing all the necessary technological operations to create both simple serial parts and stereo metrically complex models.

CNC part programming codes

In order for the equipment to perform operations, we give them a set of commands, the so-called CNC part programming codes. It transforms from a program written by a developer into a post processor. From here, the machine control system receives information about the task and the stages of its implementation, and then forms a profile, and the machine performs technological operations.


To actually embody design or engineering developments, you need to write a program to create a specific part. This is done by the programmer using CAD software. Important! Different programming platforms are common depending on the machine generation, control system, and equipment type.

CNC Programming Methods

There are several ways to write programs for CNC equipment:

Ø Manual

It is a developer or designer creates a CNC part programming codes on a remote PC, and then transfers the finished program to the machine using a CD-ROM, flash drive, floppy disk or via an interface cable. The manual method of programming is most often common for similar and simple turning operations, on milling machines for processing in two coordinates, for drilling groups of holes.

Ø From the CNC control panel

The operator from the keyboard enters a set of preset commands that the machine executes. Programming from the remote control allows you to start the same operations as with the manual method, plus transitions for 2.5–3-axis movements. This method is convenient for starting operations of the same type or correcting current CNC part programming codes.

Ø Automated

Automated method using integrated CAD / CAE / CAM systems, automated methods are applicable only in the latest generations of machine tools included in a single computer system of the production process.

Which one is most complex?

The most complex and at the same time the most flexible system is programming in CAM environments. Here you need to first get a sketch and a model from CAD, select a machine in the dialog box, set fixtures, limits of displacement, tools, modes, methods of processing and corrections. The postprocessor, having received the data, converts it for generation into the control system.

Characteristics of manual programming

The overwhelming majority of enterprises use precisely programmed machines. This is due to the fact that the main operations performed are simple and of the same type. Therefore, there is no need to purchase modern machines integrated into a single electronic system. Manual programming requires meticulous precision and accuracy of CNC part programming codes.

The operator must be fluent in the G-code and know all its commands. Furthermore, the technologist creates the program on his computer in a text editor. The file extension is .txt. The program includes the coordinates along which the tool moves when machining the part, and a set of codes.  Similarly, after writing the program, it is transferred to the control system of the machine.

CNC part count

Characteristics of on the remote

Many CNC machines come with a display and keyboard. Therefore, you can set the program to the equipment directly from the remote control. Manufacturers have provided two options for setting the task for the machine: entering G and M codes from the keyboard; using a dialog box.

Characteristics of automated

For enterprises that produce parts of high precision and complex configuration, a CAM system is optimal. It significantly increases productivity because it automatically calculates the path of the tool that is processing the work piece. Enterprises where CNC machines perform a wide variety of technological operations also prefer fully automated CNC part programming codes.

The advantages of automated systems:

  • save a technologist or designer from cumbersome and lengthy mathematical calculations;
  • Similarly, in the same base language, an NC (G-code) is generated for all types of machine tools;
  • Furthermore, have a set of ready-made functions that reduce the time for compiling a program;
  • Moreover, loading the finished code into the machine memory directly from the technologist's PC

How to write programs for CNC machines?

To write a program for numerically controlled equipment, you need to adhere to certain rules and CNC part programming codes:

  • the part is important as a geometric body;
  • Furthermore, the interaction of the tool and the work piece must take into account their simultaneous movement relative to each other;
  • the trajectory of the working tool is set by its center;
  • In addition, the tool moves from one area to another, and these areas can be arcs, curves, straight lines;
  • Similarly, points of intersection of areas (control, or nodal points) are included as coordinates in the control program;
  • Moreover, we create UE frame by frame, where each frame has a description.

CAD models

With the advent of PCs, computer-aided design systems began we call CAD systems - computer-aided design. Nevertheless, the abbreviation CAD comes firmly, and technologists, developers, programmers, designers of any design software we call CAD.


It is vital for cnc beginners to learn CNC part programming codes. Otherwise, they won’t be able to work accurately on major projects. In addition, learning these codes will make them proficient in many cnc aspects.