Nuances of Metal Turning on CNC Machines
Nuances of Metal Turning on CNC Machines
CNC turning metalworking occurs by means of various types of equipment, which differ in purpose, design, automation indicators, as well as in the type of tasks performed.
According to the type of tasks performed, the machines are divided into:
For workpieces with a straight and curved shape, choose equipment with a center-type CNC. For metalworking, a special program is prescribed. The machine can be equipped with horizontal or vertical guides.
For cutting workpieces with complex shapes, cartridge-type equipment is used. It is ready to carry out a variety of operations: reaming, drilling, turning, as well as counterbore, countersinking and cutting.
For internal and external metalworking of especially complex products, machine tools of the cartridge-center type are used. They are great for turning work.
For the manufacture of large-sized products, carousel-type equipment is used, which has a similar operating principle.
Metal turning is performed with high precision, because:
- There are no gaps in the design of the machines;
- Turning tools have high rigidity;
- The task execution system is much simpler;
- Feedback occurs using sensors;
- The vibration resistance of the machine is quite high.
Before starting work, the machine (all its components and assemblies) warms up. This makes it possible to reduce the coefficient of thermal deformation to minimum values. The computer-controlled metalworking equipment has a robust structure and working mechanisms that move precisely along the workpiece.
The control complexes of the machines guarantee the correct operation of the equipment and its serviceability. The design of equipment with CNC for metal turning is based on the possibility of using three types of such complexes. Their features:
- Contour complex – the program controls turning in a curvilinear way;
- Positional complex – the program sets the final coordinates along which the processing is carried out;
- Adaptive complex – it combines the previous two.
It is necessary to choose turning equipment based on its purpose. To determine the complex standing on the device, you need to look at the markings: F1, F2, F3 or F4. Equipment with the F1 sign sets the coordinates even before the start of work. Devices with F2 are equipped with a positional complex, with F3 – contour, with F4 – adaptive.
In addition, the marking may contain another type of designation – C1, C2, C3, C4 or C5. These marks show how productive the machine is. The higher the marking, the higher performance it has.
Professional turning equipment must have a software carrier. When purchasing a machine, it can already be included in its composition, supplied separately (purchased separately) or developed in production. Own development is preferable, since the machine will be able to perform more operations. However, this is only possible if there is a specialist with a sufficiently large work experience.
The program embedded in the CNC machine should involve three stages of work:
- Preliminary preparation.
- Bringing the workpiece to a finishing condition.
- Additional metalworking. This stage is optional and is used only when performing work on products of complex shapes. If the program is developed by a non-professional worker, there is a high risk of errors.
The task of the carrier software is to complete the assigned task in full. In the case of complex work, the machines can be supplied with several software carriers in a specific order. In such a situation, care must be taken to avoid inaccuracies.
The program must accurately reflect the sequence of all actions. In addition, operations with a high stiffness index should be carried out before operations with a low index.
Laser Metalworking on CNC Machines
Due to its uniqueness, the laser has become one of the most efficient tools on CNC machines. It is made unique by powerful radiation in a limited area of metalworking, reaching 108-109 W / cm2 in continuous operation and 1016-1017 W / cm2 in pulsed operation. This property allows the metal to be heated very quickly and then cooled. In this case, the workpiece itself is not deformed by heating. Combustion products are removed from the metalworking zone using technical gas (nitrogen, oxygen, air, etc.) by blowing. The laser beam is convenient to use as it is easy to control, which makes it indispensable in automated systems.
The laser began to be used in the 70s of the last century. Its fields of application: welding, marking, surfacing and hardening, metal cutting during the production of panels, gaskets, doors and instrument panels, brackets, decorative grilles, etc.
Laser metalworking was actively developed after the appearance on the market of optoelectronic beam guides of increased flexibility, as well as complex kinematic robotic manipulators. They began to be used for spatial metalworking of products.
Laser equipment for cutting metals is classified based on the radiation sources as well as the power output that determines the material being cut. For example, repetitively pulsed and quasi-continuous radiation sources (solid-state, neodymium garnet Nd: YAG) with a power from 100 to 300 W are suitable for cutting stainless steel and ferrous metals. For the processing of various alloys (including ferrous metals), as well as alloyed steels, a laser with a continuous gas supply of CO2 with a power of up to 2,500 W is used.
The main parts of metal laser cutting machines are:
- Laser equipped with power and cooling systems;
- Coordinate table on which the workpiece is attached;
- Computerized systems that control the table;
- Process gas supply devices;
- Ventilation systems.
Laser operation with constant overheating due to high power must be accompanied by cooling. Most often, water double-circuit systems or freon refrigeration compressors are used. The laser beam is powered by pulsed or transformer sources, depending on the technological tasks. When minimizing laser devices, a pulsed source is used, and for high reliability – transformer circuits.
The coordinate tables that exist now are high-precision equipment, which is based, for the most part, on “flying optics” (portal scheme). In this case, the laser beam, while moving, cuts the stationary workpiece. However, there are also other schemes. For example, cutting Nd: YAG, in which there is a mutual movement: the table, with the workpiece placed on it, moves along one coordinate, and the laser beam along the other.
The XY table is controlled by an industrial computer. It includes, in addition to hardware devices (sensors, drives, etc.), programs:
- Input of drawings (in electronic form), made in graphic editors (Adobe Illustrator, AutoCad, CorellDraw) and having formats .plt, .dxf, .ai, .cf
- Managing reproduction, rotation, scaling of the drawing on the coordinate table;
- Setting up parameters for automatically accounting for the width of the cut, processing and insertion, determining the external / internal contours of the product, as well as adjusting the cutting in the process of metal processing, etc .;
- With the help of which the coordinate drive is set up, drawing simple figures, as well as the operator’s workplace;
- Connecting devices of the external environment, allowing to control the laser emitter and communicate with the local network of the enterprise.
Various process gases are used in the laser cutting process. This can be oxygen, used to work with ferrous metal, or an inert gas (nitrogen), used to cut stainless steel. The removal of combustion and decay products (aerosol and gaseous) occurs with the help of ventilation, for the creation of which devices are used, which are necessarily part of equipment for laser processing of metals.
There are other cutting methods besides “flying optics”. For example, deformable mirrors. This technology combines the advantages of “gantry” and stationary schemes. During operation, the laser beam changes its trajectory twice. Before reaching the workpiece, it is reflected several times in mirrors having a controlled surface. One of the advantages of this method is the complete absence of complex mechanics. However, managing mirrors is difficult.
Why you should contact us
We treat all clients with respect and equally scrupulously carry out tasks of any size.
Our production facilities allow us to process a variety of materials:
- Non-ferrous metals;
- Cast iron;
- Stainless steel.
When fulfilling an order, our specialists use all known methods of metal machining. Modern equipment of the latest generation makes it possible to achieve maximum compliance with the original drawings.
In order to bring the workpiece closer to the sketch presented by the customer, our specialists use universal equipment designed for jewelry sharpening of tools for especially complex operations. In our production workshops, metal becomes a ductile material from which any workpiece can be made.
The advantage of contacting our specialists is their compliance with GOST and all technological standards. At each stage of work, strict quality control is carried out, so we guarantee our customers a conscientiously executed product.
Thanks to the experience of our craftsmen, the output is an exemplary product that meets the most demanding requirements. At the same time, we start from a powerful material base and focus on innovative technological developments.
We work with customers from all over the world. If you want to place an order for metalworking, our managers are ready to listen to all the conditions. If necessary, the client is provided with a free specialized consultation.